heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease—Murphy et al., 2018.
Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today. As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.
Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm To Prepare
· Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
· Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
· Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
· Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
· Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient. ASSIGNMENT: CASE STUDY: Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following: • Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun
• Aspirin 81 mg daily
• Metformin 1000 mg po bid
• Glyburide 10 mg bid
• Atenolol 100 mg po daily
• Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned. Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples. Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.
REQUIRED READINGS Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. · Chapter 34, “Review of Hemodynamics” (pp. 335–340) · Chapter 35, “Diuretics” (pp. 341–349) · Chapter 36, “Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System” (pp. 351–362) · Chapter 37, “Calcium Channel Blockers” (pp. 363–369) · Chapter 38, “Vasodilators” (pp. 371–373) · Chapter 39, “Drugs for Hypertension” (pp. 375–388) · Chapter 40, “Drugs for Heart Failure” (pp. 389–402) · Chapter 41, “Antidysrhythmic Drugs” (pp. 403–418) · Chapter 42, “Prophylaxis of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels” (pp. 419–439) · Chapter 43, “Drugs for Angina Pectoris” (pp. 441–450) · Chapter 44, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 451–472)